For the deepest penetrations, pure metals yield the best results, because they display the greatest ductility, which delays the breakup of the jet into particles as it stretches. Thus, the two models are:. Casey; Hummer, Charles Contrary to a widespread misconception possibly resulting from the acronym HEAT the shaped charge does not depend in any way on heating or melting for its effectiveness; that is, the jet from a shaped charge does not melt its way through armor, as its effect is purely kinetic in nature. Often this can be done in more than one way, the best configuration being determined by trial-and-error. Naval Torpedo Station at Newport, Rhode Islandhe noticed that when a block of explosive guncotton with the manufacturer's name stamped into it was detonated next to a metal plate, the lettering was cut into the plate. It is well suited for the attack of other less heavily protected armored fighting vehicles AFV and in the breaching of material targets buildings, bunkers, bridge supports, etc.
Abstract Despite the availability of large number of empirical and semi-empirical models, the problem of penetration depth prediction for concrete targets has remained inconclusive partly due to the complexity of the phenomenon involved and partly because of the limitations of the statistical regression employed.
However, these temperatures are not completely consistent with evidence that soft recovered copper jet particles show signs of melting at the core while the outer portion remains solid and cannot be equated with bulk temperature. Liners have been made from many materials, including various metals  and glass. In the end therefore the network configuration FFBP Model-A1 along with corresponding weight and bias matrix given in Table 6 is recommended for general use in order to predict the penetration depth. However, it was not until that Franz Rudolf Thomanek, a student of physics at Vienna's Technische Hochschuleconceived an anti-tank round that was based on the hollow charge effect. The training and validation of the two models is shown in Figs. Thus, the two models are:. This slug is projected toward the target at about two kilometers per second.